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Buy Citizenship with Cryptocurrency & Bitcoin: Passport by Investment Programs for Crypto Investors in 2024

Mark Damsgaard

Mark Damsgaard

Founder of Global Residence Index

Last updated: March 4, 2024

Can You Buy Citizenship & Passport With Bitcoin & Cryptocurrency?

Yes. As one of few citizenship-by-investment agencies, we at Global Residence Index offer our clients to pay for their new citizenship or residency with Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies.

Citizenship by Investment Programs accepting Bitcoin, USDT and other crypto

We can facilitate cryptocurrency payments for most of the programs that we work with. The most popular programs among our cryptocurrency-focused clients are the programs of Vanuatu, Dominica, and St. Lucia due to their fast and straightforward application process.

Will I get a second passport?

Yes. We will take care of this part for you. After you become a citizen of your new country, our team will apply for a passport and have it couriered to your address. You are also welcome to collect your new passport from any of our office locations.

Is it legal to obtain a second citizenship & passport?

Absolutely. All the programs we work with are official citizenship-by-investment programs for which the offering countries have official laws.

As part of the countries’s due diligence, the ‘source of funds’ must be demonstrated. This part can be challenging for cryptocurrency traders. Please feel free to contact us to go through this part in further detail.

About our firm

We work with clients worldwide who are considering citizenship through investment programs in every corner of the globe. We are well-versed in each program’s details and can offer expert guidance to our clients. Don’t hesitate to contact us to learn how we can help you obtain a second citizenship that can be paid for using Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies.

More about citizenship by investment for crypto investors

The concept of obtaining citizenship through investment has expanded to accommodate the digital age, including the use of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. With their increased popularity and acceptance, cryptocurrencies have begun to play a pivotal role in various financial transactions, including those involving citizenship by investment programs. Investors who have amassed wealth in decentralized digital currencies now have the option to leverage their crypto assets for securing citizenship in certain countries. This transformation in the citizenship investment landscape opens a novel pathway for crypto investors to achieve global mobility and international diversification of assets.

Given the volatile nature of cryptocurrencies, investors looking to utilize these digital assets for citizenship purposes must navigate through a landscape of evolving legislative frameworks. While countries like Vanuatu have openly embraced cryptocurrencies as a form of payment for their citizenship by investment programs, others are cautiously examining the implications of such transactions. Investors must also consider the practicality of using cryptocurrencies for such significant investments, taking into account technological complexity, security concerns, and the changing regulatory environment.

Understanding Citizenship by Investment

Citizenship by Investment (CBI) programs offer individuals the opportunity to legally acquire a new nationality and an additional passport by making significant investments into the economy of the host nation. These programs are a fast-track to obtaining second citizenship, providing benefits such as increased global mobility and economic opportunities.

Exploring Citizenship by Investment Programs

Countries with Citizenship by Investment programs usually have government-mandated investments options through which investors can qualify for citizenship. The investment often takes the form of either a financial contribution to a national development fund or real estate investment in the country. Some common characteristics of these programs include:

  • Investment Type: Contributions to government funds or real estate investments.
  • Processing Time: Faster acquisition of citizenship compared to traditional naturalization processes.
  • Due Diligence: Strict background checks and vetting procedures to ensure the integrity of the program.

Eligibility and Requirements

The eligibility criteria for CBI programs typically require the applicant to be of a certain age, have a clean criminal record, and possess legally obtained funds for investment. While specifics can vary by country, here are general requirements that applicants need to meet:

  • Age: Most programs require applicants to be at least 18 years old.
  • Source of Funds: Proof of legal acquisition of investment funds.
  • Background Check: A clean criminal record and good character.
  • Investment Minimum: A government-specified minimum investment amount, which can range from $100,000 to several million dollars, depending on the nation.

Each country’s CBI program has its own legal framework, designed to ensure that the process benefits the nation’s economy and adheres to international standards to prevent illegal activities.

Cryptocurrency and Investment

In the realm of investment, cryptocurrency is becoming a prominent player with its ability to act as a capital resource. This digital currency’s integration into the investment space, particularly in citizenship and passport investment programs, mirrors its growing acceptance and versatility.

The Role of Crypto in Investment

Cryptocurrency has carved out a role for itself in the global investment scenario. Leveraging blockchain technology, crypto offers a level of security and transparency that traditional investments may lack. The use of Bitcoin, Ethereum, and other crypto assets in investment programs has seen increased interest as these digital currencies have become more mainstream. Investors find crypto appealing due to the potential for high returns and the ease of cross-border transactions. Crypto-assets provide a non-traditional avenue for securing capital; they can be liquidated or used as direct investment in programs that have adapted to accept digital currencies.

Crypto Assets as Investment Capital

Crypto assets are increasingly recognized as viable forms of investment capital. Investment programs, including some citizenship by investment schemes, have begun to accept cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum as a method of payment.

  1. Vanuatu: Accepts cryptocurrency for their citizenship by investment program.
  2. Dominica & St. Lucia: Programs popular among crypto investors, appreciated for their straightforward application process.

The liquidity of crypto assets allows investors to quickly mobilize funds for investment opportunities. Importantly, the inherent properties of the blockchain ensure that each transaction is recorded, immutable, and can be traced, providing a layer of security and trust in the investment process. However, participants must be aware that the crypto market is volatile, and regulatory changes can impact the acceptance of crypto for investment purposes.

Countries Offering Citizenship for Cryptocurrency

In the landscape of investment immigration, several nations have emerged as pioneers in accepting cryptocurrency as a legitimate form of investment for citizenship by investment (CBI) programs.

Crypto-Friendly Countries

Caribbean Nations:

  • St. Kitts and Nevis, as well as Antigua and Barbuda, have adapted their legislation to support digital assets, making them prime destinations for securing citizenship through cryptocurrency.
  • Grenada and Dominica are also known for their openness to crypto investments, albeit with specific regulations and conditions in place.


  • Located in the South Pacific, Vanuatu stands out for offering citizenship through a program that accepts cryptocurrency, backed by numerous tax benefits for investors.

European Options:

  • While not directly accepting cryptocurrency, countries like Malta and Portugal have shown to be crypto-friendly, with potential paths toward citizenship for cryptocurrency investors through traditional monetary conversions and investments.

Passport Power and Visa-Free Access

Caribbean Passports:

  • Passports from the crypto-friendly Caribbean countries often provide visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to between 120-150 countries, including major destinations like the UK and the Schengen Area.

Vanuatu Passport:

  • The Vanuatu passport grants visa-free access to over 125 countries, a considerable option for those seeking expanded global mobility.

European Passports:

  • While Malta transcends in passport power, offering visa-free access to over 180 countries including the US and Canada, due to its EU membership, obtaining Maltese citizenship requires significant investment in traditional financial terms, which may be routed through crypto assets.

It’s imperative to note that while the adoption of cryptocurrency is rising, many of these programs still necessitate thorough due diligence, ensuring compliance with international financial regulations.

Legal and Regulatory Considerations

Navigating the intersection of cryptocurrency and citizenship by investment involves understanding complex legal frameworks and ensuring compliance with international and national regulations.

International Law and Cryptocurrency

In the context of buying citizenship with cryptocurrency, it is crucial to recognize that no universal legal standard yet exists for the treatment of digital currencies. Governments vary in their approach to cryptocurrency; some embrace it, while others enforce strict regulations. Regulatory bodies such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) offer guidance, but the adoption of these recommendations differs by country.

Investors must be aware of legal discrepancies between nations, especially since crypto transactions often cross multiple legal jurisdictions. When engaging in citizenship by investment programs, one must consider how the source country, the destination country, and international law view cryptocurrency transactions. For example, investors are typically required to prove the legality of their digital assets, ensuring that funds adhere to international anti-money laundering standards.

Due Diligence and Compliance

Citizenship by investment programs demand stringent due diligence checks. Investors need to comply with the exhaustive vetting process that scrutinizes the legality and origin of their crypto assets. Regulatory entities, such as the IRS in the United States, have established tax reporting requirements for digital currencies. Investors must address any tax obligations in their home country, including capital gains tax, inheritance tax, and tax on worldwide income or assets.

They should also be aware of the tax implications in the destination country. Some nations offer tax advantages, like no income tax or tax exemptions on foreign-sourced income, which can be appealing to crypto investors. Engaging a reputable law firm with expertise in both cryptocurrency and international investment law is advisable to ensure compliance with all legislation.

Entities including regulators and governments are observing the growing trend of crypto for citizenship closely. Future changes in government legislation could impact the viability of using digital assets for such investments, making continuous monitoring of the regulatory environment essential.

The Investment Process

When buying citizenship with cryptocurrency, the investment process involves due diligence to select the right program and secure financial transactions using crypto assets.

Evaluating Investment Programs

Investors should methodically assess the range of citizenship by investment (CBI) programs available. Programs such as those offered by Vanuatu, Dominica, and St. Lucia have been popular among crypto investors. They should consider factors such as the legitimacy of the program, the economic stability of the country, the potential for investment growth, and the benefits of the golden visa. Each program has its own cost structure and required proof of funds.

Documentary requirements often include personal financial statements, brokerage account statements, and documentation of crypto assets. Crypto investors must ensure that the program is crypto-friendly and has a history of successful cases with crypto-based investments.

Securing and Transferring Funds

Once an investment program is chosen, investors must secure their funds. They may need to convert their cryptocurrency into a fiat currency accepted by the program. Utilizing exchange and escrow partners familiar with CBI programs can facilitate the transfer. This may involve setting up an offshore bank account or working with escrow agents.

The proof of funds must be verified, and in many cases, investors use escrow agents to hold the funds in a secure account until the citizenship is granted. Careful documentation is critical throughout this process to meet both the CBI program’s requirements and any applicable cryptocurrency regulations. It’s essential to provide a clear personal financial statement to attest the legality and origin of the funds, and ensure smooth processing of the investment.

Benefits and Risks of Crypto-Based Citizenship

Acquiring a second passport or citizenship through cryptocurrency investments presents unique advantages to investors seeking a plan B, but it also comes with potential risks that must be carefully navigated.

Advantages of Acquiring Second Passport with Crypto

Investors looking to buy a second passport or citizenship with cryptocurrency like Bitcoin can enjoy several benefits:

  • Visa-free Travel: Citizenship in certain countries provides visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to numerous destinations, simplifying international travel.
  • Investment Opportunities: Investing in citizenship programs often opens up new avenues for business and could lead to tax-advantaged situations.
  • Security and Plan B: Acquiring second citizenship can offer peace of mind, serving as a “safety net” against political instability or market crashes in the investor’s home country.

Potential Pitfalls and How to Avoid Them

While the prospect is appealing, there are risks associated with buying citizenship or a second passport with cryptocurrency:

  • Volatility: The cryptocurrency market is notoriously volatile; a rapid change in value could affect the investment requirements for citizenship.
  • Legitimacy and Legal Concerns: Investors should verify the legitimacy of the citizenship-by-investment program to avoid any association with illicit activities.
  • Regulatory Changes: Crypto policies and regulations can change without much notice, impacting the validity or conditions of citizenship programs.

Investors must perform due diligence and perhaps consult with legal experts in immigration and cryptocurrency to mitigate these risks.

Technological Aspects of Crypto Transactions

In the realm of acquiring citizenship through investment, cryptocurrencies have transformed the financial transactions through their underlying technology and secured methods. These technological advancements facilitate the process, ensuring transparency and efficiency.

Blockchain and Its Impact

The blockchain is the fundamental technology behind cryptocurrencies. It serves as a decentralized ledger that records all transactions across a network. The blockchain ensures full transparency in cryptocurrency transactions, which is essential when making significant investments for citizenship. Digital assets transferred through the blockchain offer a secure and immutable record, thus providing a trustworthy foundation for citizenship by investment programs.

Decentralized finance (DeFi) further leverages blockchain technology to provide financial services without the need for traditional financial intermediaries. This implies that crypto investors can engage in cryptocurrency trading, participate in Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs), or use crypto ATMs with reduced reliance on banks and government institutions.

Smart Contracts and Escrow

Smart contracts play a pivotal role in the security and automation of cryptocurrency transactions. They are self-executing contracts with the terms of the agreement between buyer and seller directly written into code. These contracts automatically enforce and execute the conditions, such as transferring a specific amount of a virtual currency after certain criteria are met, which can include satisfactory due diligence in the citizenship application process.

Escrow services in the fintech industry have adapted to accommodate the use of digital assets in transactions. They withhold the cryptocurrency payment until all conditions of the citizenship investment are met, securing both the donor’s and recipient’s interests. Additionally, these services mitigate risks associated with the donation or investment for citizenship, enabling a trustless exchange between parties.

Practical Steps for Investors

The pursuit of alternative citizenship through investment necessitates a clear understanding of the process and the proper setup of payment methods for transactions. Investors interested in using cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin must navigate the financial landscape with precision and adhere to various regulatory measures that might differ from traditional banking procedures.

Completing the Citizenship Application

Once the payment method is established, investors should proceed to the application process for citizenship. This typically involves a significant non-refundable donation to the country’s economic fund or an investment in real estate. Careful documentation is critical; they must provide proof of their investment and submit all required legal forms, which may include extensive background checks and verification of the source of their investment funds. It’s important to ensure that all visa program policies are understood and that all invested funds are derived from legitimate sources to prevent legal difficulties.

Key points for completing the application:

  • Gather all required documentation, including proof of cryptocurrency holdings and a clean criminal record.
  • Transfer the designated cryptocurrency amount according to the stipulated citizenship program guidelines, often through a legal investment path.
  • Maintain open communication with the involved banks or financial institutions to ensure transaction transparency.
  • Consider the country’s specific application timelines and any potential legal contingencies that might arise.

Investors must tread carefully on each step, mindful that the crypto landscape is subject to sudden changes and regulatory updates that could impact their citizenship by investment process.

Future of Citizenship by Investment and Crypto

The intertwining of cryptocurrency with citizenship by investment programs presents a forward-looking landscape where digital assets are reshaping traditional norms.

Emerging Trends in Crypto Citizenship

Countries are increasingly recognizing the potential of cryptocurrencies in attracting capital through Citizenship by Investment (CBI) programs. Switzerland, a pioneer in crypto-friendly legislation, offers a glimpse into how nations might facilitate these transactions. They have set precedents by incorporating crypto into everyday transactions, even accepting it as legal tender in certain cantons. With the evolution of crypto legislation, more countries are expected to follow suit, thereby expanding the scope of CBI programs.

Interest in crypto-friendly jurisdictions has surged among international companies and investors. A Maltese passport, once obtainable via cryptocurrency, has highlighted the trend of small nations leveraging their CBI programs to appeal to crypto investors. While regulations are tightening, the demand for such investment pathways remains buoyant, suggesting an augmentation of CBI frameworks to accommodate cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin (BTC) and Tether (USDT) within legal boundaries.

Influence on National Economies

Accepting cryptocurrencies for CBI programs can significantly impact national economies. By drawing in affluent investors, these programs inject substantial foreign dollars into the local economy, driving growth and innovation. Legislation plays a critical role; clear and supportive crypto legislation can create an attractive destination for wealthy investors while ensuring financial and regulatory stability.

For instance, a country that revamps its CBI program to accept cryptocurrencies can potentially boost its economy by unlocking a new capital inflow from the crypto sphere. This premise finds support from countries that have experienced economic uplifts upon streamlining their CBI programs to attract more international capital.

In conclusion, as crypto integration becomes more prevalent, countries that proactively adapt their legislation and CBI programs will likely find themselves at the forefront of a new economic paradigm, engaging with a globally mobile, crypto-wealthy clientele.

Real-Estate Investment Routes

Real estate investments have long served as a solid pathway for obtaining citizenship, and with the advent of cryptocurrency, the process has diversified. One notable application is in Dominica, where investors have the option to attain citizenship by investing in property. Investors are required to make a real estate investment of $200,000, typically in a condominium or similar development. This transaction can potentially be executed using cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, streamlining the investment process and providing a crypto-friendly avenue for investors seeking new citizenship.

An instance that showcases such growth is El Salvador. Recognizing Bitcoin as legal tender, El Salvador has emerged as an interested participant in the crypto sphere. While it may not offer a direct citizenship by investment program that accepts Bitcoin, its real estate marketplace has adapted to these changes, inviting crypto investors to explore real estate investment opportunities, leveraging the country’s crypto-friendly ecosystem for long-term growth.

Business Development and Entrepreneurship

The citizenship by investment program model extends beyond property investment, also rewarding those who stimulate economic growth through business development. Crypto investors have a unique advantage in crypto-amenable nations, where they can contribute to the local economy while also positioning themselves for prospective citizenship opportunities.

A successful entrepreneur might choose to invest in a country with a citizenship by investment program, not only to expand their business reach but to secure a second citizenship in the process. The synergy between crypto-friendly environments and investment opportunities renders a landscape conducive to business growth and innovation, fostering entrepreneurship in the burgeoning digital economy. Such alignment between innovative investment and citizenship acquisition underscores the relevance and potential of citizenship by investment for the global investor community.

Frequently Asked Questions

This section covers key information for investors interested in obtaining citizenship through cryptocurrency investments, detailing the process and highlighting specific programs that cater to crypto investors.

What is the process for obtaining citizenship by investment using cryptocurrency?

Investors generally follow a process similar to traditional citizenship by investment programs, which includes selecting a suitable program, passing due diligence checks, and making the required investment in the designated form, which, in this case, is cryptocurrency.

Can cryptocurrency be used for all citizenship by investment programs, or are there specific countries that accept it?

Not all countries accept cryptocurrency for citizenship by investment programs; however, specific countries like Vanuatu have embraced this option. Investors should research or consult with programs directly to determine the accepted form of payment.

What are the tax implications for obtaining dual citizenship through crypto investment?

Tax implications can vary widely depending on the investor’s home country and the acquired citizenship. Generally, dual citizens might be subject to tax reporting in both countries, and it is advisable to consult with a tax professional to understand the responsibilities and implications.

How does the citizenship by investment program in Vanuatu work for crypto investors?

Vanuatu’s citizenship by investment program allows investors to make their investment using Bitcoin or other accepted cryptocurrencies. The government converts the digital currency to the local equivalent at the time of the transaction to process the investment.

Are there any specific citizenship programs in the Caribbean that allow investment via Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies?

While traditional payment forms are prevalent in the Caribbean citizenship by investment programs, countries like St. Kitts and Nevis allow investors to convert their cryptocurrency into a government-accepted currency to make the necessary investment for citizenship.


Need help?

Navigating through golden visa & citizenship by investment programs can be complex and overwhelming, regardless of the country or program you’re interested in. If you’re struggling to find clear, accurate information, you’re not alone. Our team is here to offer you clarity and reliable advice across a wide range of immigration programs.

By scheduling a consultation, you’ll receive personalized guidance tailored to your unique situation. We’re dedicated to helping you understand the details of various immigration programs, making them more straightforward so you can proceed with confidence.


During our call, we will:

Here is what to expect from a call with our advisory team:


We’ll answer your questions about the program and the application process, providing you with the clarity you need.


We’ll break down each stage of the immigration process, ensuring you know exactly what to expect.


We’ll help you determine if the chosen program is the right fit for you or suggest alternatives that may better align with your goals.


Gain access to our network of recommended local lawyers, as well as providers of eligible investment options.